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Cannabis 101

Whole Flower Cannabis Versus Extracts

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Medical patients in Florida are benefiting from the legal use of isolated cannabinoids—or products containing cannabis compounds that have been separated from their whole-plant source. While products like tinctures, salves, and capsules can offer the benefits of cannabis, science is showing that whole plant medicine offers a completely new and different angle of cannabis therapeutic benefit. Are patients in Florida missing out? What does science have to say when comparing whole flower cannabis to cannabis extractions? 

Before taking a closer look, let’s see how an established marketplace operates.


The Power of Flower

In Colorado for example, cannabis flower is available by both medical and recreational cannabis markets. In addition, those age 21+ may legally grow six plants. If you have a debilitating condition, a doctor can increase one’s grow limit up to 24 plants. This allows patients and recreational users the ability to personalize their cannabis consumption in order to best serve them. 

Patients that require more medical cannabis can process their grow, allowing them to make edibles, topicals, full extraction cannabis oil (FECO), and cannabis juice. Juicing is a powerful resource which provides dense nutrition with a good balance of fatty acids.

Fresh raw cannabis has almost no psychoactivity and a plethora of health benefits. It is possible to consume many more beneficial cannabinoids by volume when drinking cannabis in the form of a juice.

Smokable flower is dried and cured and can be smoked or used for processing into edibles, topicals, or FECO (full extract cannabis oils). Smoking flower has a one to three-minute onset and is great for rapid delivery. The heat from combustion activates beneficial compounds through a process called decarboxylation—this means that when cannabis is heated, some of its cannabinoids (like THC) become easier for us to absorb. Smoking cannabis is a brief commitment compared to some other delivery methods – effects only last for about one to three hours. 

Although there are no known cases of lung disease or lung cancer among those that smoke only cannabis, we must also keep in mind that the smoke from cannabis contains many of the harmful chemicals also seen in tobacco smoke. More research is needed before we determine if smoked cannabis causes long-term harm—but so far, we have no research to suggest that smoked cannabis has any of the cancer-causing effects of other smoked substances such as tobacco. Time and research will tell.

While there are many supporting anecdotal reports concerning the therapeutic value of smoked cannabis, more research is needed. Available clinical studies supporting the safety and efficacy of smoked cannabis for therapeutic purposes in a variety of disorders are limited, although increasing in number. Pubmed, a free database for science journals in the life science and biomedical fields has thousands of peer reviewed articles on the topic of cannabis. Patients are encouraged to take a look and decide for themselves which route of delivery they are most comfortable with.

Lets take a look at extracts now that we understand more about cannabis flower.


The Essential Extract

Cannabis extracts are concentrated products processed by way of mechanical pressure and chemical extraction, and some extracts undergo production processes that create separation of cannabinoids and isolation of various phytocannabinoids. This means that the compounds are extracted from the plant, then mechanically put back into the product later in different combinations in an attempt to achieve different medicinal effects. This process is similar to the process drug producers use to extract medicinal compounds from other plants for use in different pharmaceuticals. It should be also noted that it is a common trend to add terpenes to e-cigs or even concentrates as additives.

Seasoned patients often choose extracts due to their efficiency and “clean” effect. Dabs—or concentrated doses of cannabis heated on a hot surface and consumed through a device called a dab rig—are also more consistent with dosing due to cannabis concentration variance from bud to bud in flower. Those who consume dabs find it to be easier on the lungs than combustion of flower. However, results of the study “Toxicant Formation in Dabbing: The Terpene Story” display that even though dabbing is viewed a vaporization there could be toxic degradation products present at certain temperatures. 

The effects of cannabis concentrates in strength and duration can either be comparable to smoked cannabis or vastly exceed it, depending on the product and concentration. There are no clinical studies on the use of medical cannabis consumed orally. However,  it is known that the onset is much slower and prolonged. It has been repeatedly stated that the psychotropic side effects associated with the use of cannabinoids have been found to limit their therapeutic utility—in other words, it is suggested that the psychoactive effects of cannabis stop it from helping the patient. Interestingly, the same view is not also taken in the case of pain prescriptions—in the case of many pain meds, the side-affects are considered normal, and are even joked about in social settings. Hopefully time and research will change this limited perspective of cannabis’ therapeutic potential.

Bring your Entourage

When we refer to studies on the topic of cannabis, it is important to bring up the entourage effect. Proposed by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam (often referred to as the father of cannabis science due to his contributions) the entourage effect is a mechanism by which the compounds found in cannabis modulate the effects of the plant. In other words, cannabinoids like THC, CBD, and others work wonderfully by themselves. However, when combined, they help each other reach their full therapeutic potential.

More recent studies probe this by comparing isolated cannabinoids to those compounds from whole plant. For example, the study “Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidol” found that whole plant extract with CBD was more effective than just CBD for inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Another key study “Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol” concluded that cannabidiol has an improved dose response in the presence of other cannabis plant constituents. These studies all suggest that cannabis medicine can be used to its full potential when the whole plant and its natural cannabinoid combinations are utilized.

In the end, everyone wins

According to research, both cannabis flower and cannabis extracts have their benefits—however, current trends in science suggest that full spectrum medicine available through cannabis flower may be more beneficial to some conditions. Florida patients could greatly benefit in many ways by being granted the right to grow their own cannabis flower.

But what may it look like if medical cannabis was available to grow by patients, or made more widely available in dispensaries? Transparency and full access come with many benefits to the patient. In Colorado, for example, flower is responsible for 40% of sales, and the pricing is driven by saturation in a maturing market. Due to competition, economic impact would be favorable and the access to those who need it would increase. An upsurge in innovation, as we have seen demonstrated in other legal climates, is also likely. Also, by given the option to grow at home, patients would gain access to a broader range of medicinal strains—making it possible to fine-tune their specific medicating plan. 

As more states adopt medical and recreational cannabis laws, it is probable that the lens of science will focus more on this topic—and if there is one thing cannabis patients need, it’s a more solid library of information. We look forward to what the future of science has to say about extracts and full spectrum cannabis.

Cannabis 101

Choosing your Cannabis Flower

The conversation around whole, raw cannabis flower access is growing. How do patients in
Florida prepare for this new legal landscape? What does one look for when purchasing
medicine in its whole plant form? How do we determine its safety and utility? In this article, we
open a dialogue to introduce the many uses and benefits of raw cannabis flower, providing a
map for the new patient on what to expect, consider, and be wary of when purchasing raw
cannabis flower from their local dispensary. To help pave the way, we invited Max Montrose,
Founder and President of the Trichome Institute, to share his views and perspectives on what’s
important when choosing your whole flower medicine. Here are the top three most important
things a patient should consider.

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1.) Follow your senses

It seems rudimentary, but the old adage is true: The nose knows. According to Montrose, you have the ability to decipher for yourself if the medicine you’re ingesting is something your body will respond well to. But why is smelling cannabis so important?

“For the same reason it is important to use your senses when shopping for food at the grocery store,” explains Montrose. Our bodies are constantly absorbing information from all around us. Sight, smell, taste, touch—these senses allow us to take in our surroundings, sending signals to our brain on what is and isn’t good for us.

“It’s just like shopping for food,” Montrose explains. “If there is a pyramid of apples, why did you pick this over that? It didn’t have a bruise. Its form was consistent. It was robust. In a shamanic way, it is called out to you. Anything that you are attracted to from a scent perspective is good for your body from a chemical perspective.” If you are buying meat, for example, and it smelled rotten, you likely wouldn’t buy it. Whether or not we realize it, we use our natural signals to determine what to put in our bodies, and what isn’t safe for consumption.

Shopping for cannabis flower is the same. Cannabis contains compounds known as terpenes, which are oily organic compounds contained in the resin. Aromatherapy-like in nature, terpenes are responsible for the plant’s unique smell and taste and have many therapeutic benefits and effects. When combined together in their natural state, they contribute to cannabis’ entourage effect. In a revolutionary paper by Dr. Ethan Russo, the researcher finds that cannabinoids and terpenes work together to enhance and regulate the effects of one another.1 This means that terpenes are as important as— if not more important than— cannabinoids.

There are many different terpenes that exist, and each strain of cannabis has its own unique terpene profile. This profile is responsible for the strain’s unique smell, taste, and medicinal effect. Like cannabinoids, terpenes work together like a musical group, each plays its own part, and when they work together—their unique natural combination provides a symphony of balanced medicinal effects. All plants, and some animals, contain terpenes. When we hold a ripe piece of fruit or a flower to our nose and are attracted to its scent, what we are actually acknowledging is the body’s attraction to its unique terpene profile.

So, how do we use this information? In short: If a strain appeals to your senses, give it a try. If you find yourself overcome with attraction and curiosity, this is a good sign. However, if your nose tells you to put the jar down, then listen. Even though a terpene profile may be labeled on the product, our nose is our first point of contact for knowing which terpene profiles to choose. And as it turns out, your nose may be your secret weapon.

“When shopping for flower, most people look for two things: strain name and THC percentage. In reality, these are the two most meaningless things,” says Montrose. “Science has proven how and why strain names do not correlate to an effect or variety type, so this doesn’t really tell you anything. But if you can see and smell the quality for yourself and know how that smell correlates to different psychotropic effects, you have more control over the medicine and what it provides.”

For this reason, it is absolutely essential for medical patients to have access to smelling and visually assessing their flower before purchase. As Florida shifts its weight over the topic of smokable flower, patients and educators alike must contact their legislators to explain why access to whole flower medicine—before it is rolled into pre-rolled joints or stuffed into small ceramic containers—is imperative to the process of properly medicating with cannabis. If your dispensary does not offer you this experience, it may be wise to ask a manager why. Explaining our needs as patients is a great way to help encourage dispensaries to meet their patients’ needs.

2.) Quality

Just like with food, the quality of your cannabis matters. Did you know that your cannabis, just like the food in your refrigerator and pantry, has a shelf life? Cannabis’ terpene profile and cannabinoid levels will shift and change depending on when it is harvested and how long it is left to sit between production and sale. Something that may surprise you is that cannabis actually has a peak ripeness in the same way that fruit does. A green tomato picked before peak ripeness, for example, is bitter, flavorless, and less nutritious than a tomato that is left to ripen on the vine. Cannabis is no different, and once again, it all comes back to terpenes.

“People should think about terpenes as the beer bubble in a freshly-tapped mug of beer,” Montrose explains. Terpenes are in a constant state of evaporation. But what happens to your beer if you leave it to sit for a long period of time?

“If you let your beer sit overnight, your beer is flat,” Montrose says. And the same goes for terpenes. “It is all about the terpenes. Just like beer, cannabis can go flat. You can slow the process down but can’t prevent it 100 percent, so when this happens, cannabis no longer has it’s stimulating or sedating properties, polypharmacy, or entourage effects. When terpenes are gone, what you now have is a lacking product.” In most instances, the cannabis sold in dispensaries is “flat”—and for this reason, it is important for patients to be able to grow their own. In the same way that fresh vegetables are more nutritious than after a week in the fridge, fresh cannabis is much more beneficial to our health.

Finding fresh cannabis can be a challenging task even in the most liberal of markets, but Florida is well on its way towards establishing more reasonable laws. In the meantime, there are resources available to help train your nose and body to tune in to the quality of your cannabis flower.

“For people that are new to this, it can be overwhelming at first because the things you look for are small and subtle,” says Montrose. Some signs of quality are easier to spot than others.

According to Montrose, poor quality cannabis that hasn’t been flushed, for example, will smell like salt before you smoke it. “Because macro and micro nutrients have not been flushed from the flower properly, you will be smoking salts, and this will feel painful,” he explains. Flower that has been treated with harmful chemicals can give off a scent that reads as metallic, or chemically-pungent, but not always. These subtleties can be difficult to determine for the new patient.

Thankfully, there are resources available. The Trichome Institute, for example, has developed tools to help people train themselves on how to see these subtle differences. Their mission aims to solve one of the most complex problems in the cannabis industry: offering high-level education to cannabis professionals. In addition to government standard courses, The Trichome Institute offers a cannabis sommelier program called Interpening which teaches patients and professionals how to understand cannabis at an expert level by dissecting cannabis flower. Tools like this can be very valuable to new patients to help navigate the way.

3.) Safety: testing, chemicals, etc.

Cannabis flower is the US’s and Canada’s largest cash crop—and shockingly, this multibillion dollar industry has no quality control. “Unlike the grocery store,” Montrose explains, “There is no such thing as quality testing or certifications.”

This fact is shocking and can be difficult to come to terms with. How is it that such a booming industry lacks even a small department to make sure its products meet the standards patients need? Whether for reasons of rapid growth of demand before proper infrastructure was put in place or simply lack of diligence, the US cannabis industry currently has no required standardized testing requirements. State by state, requirements vary, and currently in the state of Florida, the only thing required for third-party testing is a test for THC. “And as aforementioned,” says Montrose, “This doesn’t matter much.”

What does matter, and what is lacking, are tests to determine the quality of the bud: tests that provide insight into the conditions under which it was grown, and the health of the plant.

“Not one lab currently tests for or has a standard for cannabis ripeness,” Montrose says. “And as previously explained, it is important that your cannabis be ripe if you are going to use it for its maximum benefit.” No lab currently tests for insects on flower, either—a common problem in commercial growing facilities, and a good gauge of how healthy the plant’s growing conditions were.  

So, what do we do? Begin by asking your dispensary questions, and don’t take a verbal affirmation of tested products as a green light. Consider the following:

  • Ask your dispensary what they test for, and why.  
  • Read up on what common pesticides are used to grow cannabis on a large scale and their risks.
  • Keep in mind that a company with a retail structure has the company’s best interests in mind, not necessarily your health. In the state of Florida, you need more licensing to apply makeup than to sell a product in a dispensary to a patient. There are some amazing dispensaries and dispensary workers out there, but he or she may or may not have the knowledge or experience to point you in a safe and healthy direction. It is wise to remember that the responsibility truly lies in our own hands. For these reasons, building trusting relationships with educators, dispensaries, doctors, and the cannabis community is essential.
  • When in doubt, build a relationship with a testing lab in your area and have your product tested yourself. Keep in mind that one batch of cannabis will differ from the next, so be mindful of the serial number when testing product. If you receive a questionable result, bring it to the attention of your grower/dispensary. As patients, it is up to us to lead the way for the industry standards to meet the quality standards we set for our own health.

References

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/

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Cannabis 101

Cannabis Flower

It’s not just for smoking anymore.

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Why are smokable flowers needed when there are so many other options for consuming medical cannabis?

The medical community has done a great job of getting the word out against smoking (and smokeless) tobacco. There is lots of evidence proving a direct link between consuming tobacco products and human diseases. There is less correlation between adverse effects associated with cannabis smoking and diseases. Nonetheless, the medical community may have some negative thoughts about encouraging smoking of any kind—even if it is a medicine. Patients, too, may not be eager to smoke. But smoking is just one way to consume cannabis flowers.

Vaporization, a technique where cannabis is heated to a temperature where, prior to combustion, steam or vapor is created containing the plant’s bioactive molecules. The steam or vapor is inhaled for a quick delivery of the medicine into the body. Using the lungs for administering medicine is a fast and efficient delivery method for patients who have acute, sharp pains or muscle spasms and are seeking immediate relief.

But wait, vapor pens with concentrated extracted cannabis oil are already available. Why are flowers needed? There are many people who prefer to vaporize flowers over oil, believing that the closer to the plant they are the more they can access the naturally-occurring molecules.

Some believe that vaporizing cannabis flowers is a kinder, gentler inhalation experience with less harsh afterburn in the throat. Some like the option of purchasing a sophisticated vaporizer where temperatures can be adjusted so they can procure the different compounds, like terpenes, within the plant Terpenes are one group of important bioactive chemicals in cannabis. Terpenes turn to vapor at lower temperatures than cannabinoids. By using a temperature adjustable vaporizer, patients can have access to terpenes and take advantage of the benefits of the whole plant. These types of vaporizers come with instructions and a chart to show what temperatures vaporize which chemicals making it easy for new users.

Inhalation is not the only use for cannabis flowers. Flowers can be steeped in hot water to make a tea. The resultant tea is a liquid medicine consisting of the raw forms of the cannabinoids, as the tea is not hot enough to convert the cannabinoid acids (the raw chemicals) to its chemically neutral form. There are tremendous medicinal benefits to the raw or acid forms of the cannabinoids and the intoxicating effects are not felt since there is not enough heat.

There are advantages to having a range of administration methods available to patients. As cannabis has been stigmatized for multiple decades, patients may feel uncomfortable with certain dosage forms. Excluding a particular dosage form may prevent a patient from accessing the benefits of cannabis as a medicine.

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Cannabis 101

Choosing Your Cannabis Flower

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The conversation around whole, raw cannabis flower access is growing. How do patients in Florida prepare for this new legal landscape? What does one look for when purchasing medicine in its whole plant form? How do we determine its safety and utility?

In this article, we open a dialogue to introduce the many uses and benefits of raw cannabis flower, providing a map for the new patient on what to expect, consider, and be wary of when purchasing raw cannabis flower from their local dispensary. To help pave the way, we invited Max Montrose, Founder and President of the Trichome Institute, to share his views and perspectives on what’s important when choosing your whole flower medicine. Here are the top three most important things a patient should consider. 

Follow Your Senses

It seems rudimentary, but the old adage is true: The nose knows. According to Montrose, you have the ability to decipher for yourself if the medicine you’re ingesting is something your body will respond well to. But why is smelling cannabis so important?

“For the same reason it is important to use your senses when shopping for food at the grocery store,” explains Montrose. Our bodies are constantly absorbing information from all around us. Sight, smell, taste, touch—these senses allow us to take in our surroundings, sending signals to our brain on what is and isn’t good for us. 

“It’s just like shopping for food,” Montrose explains. “If there is a pyramid of apples, why did you pick this over that? It didn’t have a bruise. Its form was consistent. It was robust. In a shamanic way, it is called out to you. Anything that you are attracted to from a scent perspective is good for your body from a chemical perspective.” If you are buying meat, for example, and it smelled rotten, you likely wouldn’t buy it. Whether or not we realize it, we use our natural signals to determine what to put in our bodies, and what isn’t safe for consumption. 

Shopping for cannabis flower is the same. Cannabis contains compounds known as terpenes, which are oily organic compounds contained in the resin. Aromatherapy-like in nature, terpenes are responsible for the plant’s unique smell and taste and have many therapeutic benefits and effects. When combined together in their natural state, they contribute to cannabis’ entourage effect. In a revolutionary paper by Dr. Ethan Russo, the researcher finds that cannabinoids and terpenes work together to enhance and regulate the effects of one another.1 This means that terpenes are as important as— if not more important than— cannabinoids. 

There are many different terpenes that exist, and each strain of cannabis has its own unique terpene profile. This profile is responsible for the strain’s unique smell, taste, and medicinal effect. Like cannabinoids, terpenes work together like a musical group, each plays its own part, and when they work together—their unique natural combination provides a symphony of balanced medicinal effects. All plants, and some animals, contain terpenes. When we hold a ripe piece of fruit or a flower to our nose and are attracted to its scent, what we are actually acknowledging is the body’s attraction to its unique terpene profile.

So, how do we use this information? In short: If a strain appeals to your senses, give it a try. If you find yourself overcome with attraction and curiosity, this is a good sign. However, if your nose tells you to put the jar down, then listen. Even though a terpene profile may be labeled on the product, our nose is our first point of contact for knowing which terpene profiles to choose. And as it turns out, your nose may be your secret weapon. 

“When shopping for flower, most people look for two things: strain name and THC percentage. In reality, these are the two most meaningless things,” says Montrose. “Science has proven how and why strain names do not correlate to an effect or variety type, so this doesn’t really tell you anything. But if you can see and smell the quality for yourself and know how that smell correlates to different psychotropic effects, you have more control over the medicine and what it provides.” 

For this reason, it is absolutely essential for medical patients to have access to smelling and visually assessing their flower before purchase. As Florida shifts its weight over the topic of smokable flower, patients and educators alike must contact their legislators to explain why access to whole flower medicine—before it is rolled into pre-rolled joints or stuffed into small ceramic containers—is imperative to the process of properly medicating with cannabis. If your dispensary does not offer you this experience, it may be wise to ask a manager why. Explaining our needs as patients is a great way to help encourage dispensaries to meet their patients’ needs.

QUALITY

Just like with food, the quality of your cannabis matters. Did you know that your cannabis, just like the food in your refrigerator and pantry, has a shelf life? Cannabis’ terpene profile and cannabinoid levels will shift and change depending on when it is harvested and how long it is left to sit between production and sale. Something that may surprise you is that cannabis actually has a peak ripeness in the same way that fruit does. A green tomato picked before peak ripeness, for example, is bitter, flavorless, and less nutritious than a tomato that is left to ripen on the vine. Cannabis is no different, and once again, it all comes back to terpenes. 

“People should think about terpenes as the beer bubble in a freshly-tapped mug of beer,” Montrose explains. Terpenes are in a constant state of evaporation. But what happens to your beer if you leave it to sit for a long period of time?

“If you let your beer sit overnight, your beer is flat,” Montrose says. And the same goes for terpenes. “It is all about the terpenes. Just like beer, cannabis can go flat. You can slow the process down but can’t prevent it 100 percent, so when this happens, cannabis no longer has it’s stimulating or sedating properties, polypharmacy, or entourage effects. When terpenes are gone, what you now have is a lacking product.” In most instances, the cannabis sold in dispensaries is “flat”—and for this reason, it is important for patients to be able to grow their own. In the same way that fresh vegetables are more nutritious than after a week in the fridge, fresh cannabis is much more beneficial to our health. 

Finding fresh cannabis can be a challenging task even in the most liberal of markets, but Florida is well on its way towards establishing more reasonable laws. In the meantime, there are resources available to help train your nose and body to tune in to the quality of your cannabis flower. 

“For people that are new to this, it can be overwhelming at first because the things you look for are small and subtle,” says Montrose. Some signs of quality are easier to spot than others. 

According to Montrose, poor quality cannabis that hasn’t been flushed, for example, will smell like salt before you smoke it. “Because macro and micro nutrients have not been flushed from the flower properly, you will be smoking salts, and this will feel painful,” he explains. Flower that has been treated with harmful chemicals can give off a scent that reads as metallic, or chemically-pungent, but not always. These subtleties can be difficult to determine for the new patient.

Thankfully, there are resources available. The Trichome Institute, for example, has developed tools to help people train themselves on how to see these subtle differences. Their mission aims to solve one of the most complex problems in the cannabis industry: offering high-level education to cannabis professionals. In addition to government standard courses, The Trichome Institute offers a cannabis sommelier program called Interpening which teaches patients and professionals how to understand cannabis at an expert level by dissecting cannabis flower. Tools like this can be very valuable to new patients to help navigate the way.

Safety – Testing, Chemicals, etc.

Cannabis flower is the US’s and Canada’s largest cash crop—and shockingly, this multibillion dollar industry has no quality control. “Unlike the grocery store,” Montrose explains, “There is no such thing as quality testing or certifications.” 

This fact is shocking and can be difficult to come to terms with. How is it that such a booming industry lacks even a small department to make sure its products meet the standards patients need? Whether for reasons of rapid growth of demand before proper infrastructure was put in place or simply lack of diligence, the US cannabis industry currently has no required standardized testing requirements. State by state, requirements vary, and currently in the state of Florida, the only thing required for third-party testing is a test for THC. “And as aforementioned,” says Montrose, “This doesn’t matter much.”

What does matter, and what is lacking, are tests to determine the quality of the bud: tests that provide insight into the conditions under which it was grown, and the health of the plant. 

“Not one lab currently tests for or has a standard for cannabis ripeness,” Montrose says. “And as previously explained, it is important that your cannabis be ripe if you are going to use it for its maximum benefit.” No lab currently tests for insects on flower, either—a common problem in commercial growing facilities, and a good gauge of how healthy the plant’s growing conditions were.  

So, what do we do?

Begin by asking your dispensary questions, and don’t take a verbal affirmation of tested products as a green light. Consider the following: 

● Ask your dispensary what they test for,
and why.  

● Read up on what common pesticides are
used to grow cannabis on a large scale and
their risks. 

● Keep in mind that a company with a retail
structure has the company’s best interests
in mind, not necessarily your health. In the
state of Florida, you need more licensing
to apply makeup than to sell a product
in a dispensary to a patient. There are some
amazing dispensaries and dispensary workers
out there, but he or she may or may not have
the knowledge or experience to point you in a
safe and healthy direction. It is wise to
remember that the responsibility truly
lies in our own hands. For these reasons,
building trusting relationships with educators,
dispensaries, doctors, and the cannabis
community is essential.

● When in doubt, build a relationship with a
testing lab in your area and have your product
tested yourself. Keep in mind that one
batch of cannabis will differ from the next,
so be mindful of the serial number when
testing product. If you receive a questionable
result, bring it to the attention of your grower
dispensary. As patients, it is up to us to lead
the way for the industry standards to meet the
quality standards we set for our own health. 


References:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/

Continue Reading

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