The GRAM team was inspired after seeing Montel Williams’ powerful keynote presentation at the Cannabis Science Conference last year. The Emmy Award winning television star, decorated veteran, and fitness enthusiast was diagnosed with MS (multiple sclerosis) in 1999. Montel explains, “I had been trying opioids for about a year and a half, and they weren’t really giving me sufficient relief.” His doctor then gave him a recommendation for cannabis. “I think when the doctor first recommended it, I really didn’t understand the full research and medical implications of cannabis. I literally dug in and tried to see if I could find some printed materials. Back then the internet wasn’t as robust as it is today, so, it took a long time searching and finding information. But even back in 2000 and 2001, I was starting to get information that was coincident with the information that’s in our government’s own patent for cannabinoids which identifies cannabinoids as having anti-inflammatory properties. Recognizing the fact that inflammation is one of the biggest nemeses of MS, I decided to see if I could gain any anti-inflammatory relief from using cannabis and did so really first kind of trying it to see if I got anything out of it. I’d also been down a pretty heavy pathway of opioid prescriptions. I had doctors who were willing to write me prescription after prescription after prescription of opioids, and I wanted to see if I could break that cycle. It really helped me break that cycle.”
I use a higher THC in the mornings to start my day, and I shift over to a higher CBD in the evening.
Montel tells us how he went ahead with his recommendation and sought out cannabis to try and find a couple strains. However, this wasn’t Montel’s first experience with cannabis. “I used cannabis when I was in high school. I’m a child of the 70’s, so cannabis was around, and I probably used it, I would say back then recreationally, but not on a regular basis. I had gone away from cannabis for almost 20 years because of my time in the military. So, when I started using it again on a regular basis, I’d already started my career in Hollywood and been to a couple of parties where cannabis was available.” He says, even then, he was only an every other month type of consumer. He explains how after reading the literature and learning it works better when you use it consistently and on a regular basis, he started a more consistent routine. “I started doing so and after about only two months, I started getting more relief.”
“Early on, I found that using the higher CBD, the more relief I started getting. But then, I started noticing that after, I’d say about two years, I started noticing that I needed to include some THC and that and the fuller spectrum, the better the relief. So for me, I now use varied forms throughout the day. I use a higher THC in the mornings to start my day, and I shift over to a higher CBD in the evening.” He explains although he’s used cannabis and been an activist for over two decades, he has been a non-flower consumer for a couple decades. “I have been a non-flower user for almost 20 years, and I shifted over to using kief in about 2001, long before it was vogue. I found that, for me, I get better relief out of kief than I do out of flower. So, I’ve kind of shifted away from flower, but on some rare occasions I now use flower. I like to mix kief with flower to give a broader spectrum.”
Montel explains how he’s not only found cannabis benefits his MS, but he’s found benefits in the gym, in addition to restful recovery after training sessions. “I definitely, for close to 20 years, I have used cannabis before workouts. Number one, I think some of the relief I’ve gotten out of it is there’s less joint pain and less amount of post-workout tension. So, it’s an easier way to relax and calm down. I also use it for sleep.”
Although he consumes cannabis for many beneficial reasons, he explains how it can be considered a powerful tool in the toolbox for health. “I think that no one should look at cannabis as if it is the end to all. It’s just like when we go to war, a war uses multiple branches of the service, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps. We fill our quiver of weaponry with every weapon we can utilize to the best advantage for whatever it is that we’re trying to overcome. Cannabis is just another arrow in that quiver. It’s another weapon in the arsenal that should be looked at being used and respected, when it actually has an effect that is giving people relief.” After Montel’s diagnosis, he has researched extensively other ways to help fight against MS and found that cannabis isn’t the only plant medicine that could help. “I tried my best to seek out a diet that was more filled with anti-inflammatory foods. I eat a lot of fruits and vegetables and try to reduce my intake of processed foods.” Food is medicine and many fruits and vegetables provide other health benefits in addition to their anti-inflammatory properties.
In the last three years, everything has changed. But before that, people really looked at it like a joke, Oh, yeah right. You use it for medicine.
Montel Williams was one of the first people to step out back in 2001 and openly discuss his cannabis use as it related MS. “People thought I was crazy for having even acknowledged the fact that I was doing so [using cannabis], and I didn’t get the support that we have right now. In the last three years, everything has changed. But before that, people really looked at it like a joke. Oh, yeah right. You use it for ‘medicine.’ The truth of the matter is, yes, I was, I was doing exactly what the U.S. government was doing back then. Nobody was willing to discuss it. I’m glad that now the industry and attitudes in the country are starting to change, but people have to remember, 18 years ago, it was entirely different.”
One discovery that has been hypocritical to the scheduling of cannabis in the United States is the patent 6630507 that the government has held since 2003 on cannabinoids. Montel says, “When I read that the U.S. government literally gave itself a patent for research that it did that proves the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis, that changed my mind immediately. I really would suggest people take the time to pull up the U.S. patent 6630507. All you have to do is read what our government says. We believe them when it comes to so many other things, we should be believing them when it comes to the money that we’ve spent taxpayer dollars to research and come up with discoveries. Why not believe it when the government itself has a patent? If the United States government has written out specific properties that it believes cannabinoids have, and it has done so. It states unequivocally, ‘Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This newfound property makes cannabinoids useful for the treatment and prophylaxis of a wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular applications as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses.’ There are so many elected officials who will stand on television and lie right through their teeth, not acknowledging the fact that it was Congress and the Senate that paid for the research that came up with this.” Montel suffered a rare stroke in 2018 and is lucky to have survived. He has since undergone physical therapy recovery. There are only 13 ambulances in the U.S. equipped with certain technology to access stroke patients and one of them was only 2 blocks from where he suffered his rare form of stroke. Knowing about the neuroprotectant properties and other benefits of cannabis, he believes there may be a connection between his survival and recovery and his cannabis use.
Montel is well known for his accomplishments in the military and feels that veterans should absolutely have access to cannabis as an option. “The VA will not deny veterans their rights at the VA hospital if they actually are found to have used cannabis, but the hospitals still will not allow doctors to recommend or discuss. I think it’s absolutely absurd that we have something that is here, that we know not only works for anti-inflammation, but we have now seen studies that have come out talking about its effect over PTSD and other things. So there’s no reason why we shouldn’t allow those who do so much for us to get the minimal benefits from a medication that does no harm.”
When I read that the U.S. government literally gave itself a patent for research that it did that proves the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis, that changed my mind immediately
After seeing the potential of cannabis as medicine firsthand and understanding the uses of industrial hemp, Montel knows the plant has the power to improve so many lives around the world. He continues his journey to educate the world about the plant and to share the knowledge he’s gained along his path to help others. “I have a brand of cannabis that I’ve had in the marketplace, that I intend to reintroduce in the market in the next couple of months and have been working diligently and trying my best to produce the safest and most efficacious medicine that I can.” He’s also continuing his mission to share education with those about cannabis through his podcast, Let’s Be Blunt with Montel. He interviews a wide variety of people to discuss their knowledge about cannabis, to share his message, and educate others about a plant that was so deeply ingrained in our history for centuries, until the 1930’s. “I really think that the cat is way out of the bag. I mean, we’re down the road now where the only thing that really should be being done is more research to validate the efficaciousness of this plant rather than people trying to do research to see if they can knock down the plant. They should be trying to do research to see what benefits we can get out of it and pursue ensuring that people have access to the most beneficial properties of cannabis. I think the only reason why we don’t do that is because of its impact. We’ve seen data come out recently about the fact that now, millennials and xennials seem to be gravitating more towards cannabis than they are alcohol. It’s really pissing off an entire industry that really is going to fight the fight, hook and nail. They’re going to fight as hard as they can to ensure that they can vilify this so that their industry is not hurt financially, and it’s really ridiculous. I think now people should step up to the plate and honestly support something that if you take a look back in history, the number of deaths, suicides, injuries and look at the adverse effects of alcohol on societies worldwide for thousands of years, and you take a look at the adverse effects of cannabis, you find none. No one has died from an overdose of cannabis. Recently, there has been a reported death by a person who was using cannabis that may have been fungus related, but they didn’t die because of the cannabis or cannabinoids. So why are we not trying to push more people to use a product that is less detrimental to mankind?”
I really would suggest people take the time to pull up the U.S. patent 6630507. All you have to do is read what our government says.
US Patent No. 6630507
The government of the United States is the owner of this patent for: Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectant
Abstract Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention. A particular disclosed class of cannabinoids useful as neuroprotective antioxidants is formula (I) wherein the R group is independently selected from the group consisting of H, CH.sub.3, and COCH.sub.3. ##STR1##
Keeping Love + Faith Alive
After losing 36 to Covid-19
What started as a “Shelter in Place” check-in with friends Barbara and Daniel Melvin, grew into this article about a family with extreme losses to COVID-19. Barb first told me they had lost 12 family members and friends from COVID-19 in mid-April. By the end of April, the number had grown to 33. The current count is 40 family and friends lost to COVID-19 as of May 18, 2020.
Daniel and Barbara lived in Detroit before relocating to Naples, Florida, in 2001. Barbara has worked in banking for 30 years and is currently a Vice President at First Florida Integrity Bank. Dan is a multi-talented singer, radio personality, and entrepreneur. They are two of the happiest, kindest, giving, and loving people you could be lucky enough to know.
Together, they have worked to give back to their community through philanthropic endeavors, as well as volunteering on numerous nonprofit boards. They celebrate their mutual birthdays, Sept 6 & 10 by holding an annual event called “Party Hearty for Charity,” formerly known as “Party with a Purpose,” their nonprofit organization., They have raised over $90K in the past six years to help support several nonprofit organizations in SouthWest FL.
Barb says, “The coronavirus is real. I first heard about it in March, but like everyone else, we didn’t understand it, and at that time, we didn’t personally know anyone that was sick from it. Then, as time went on, we started to hear about people that we knew who were dying. My husband and I hated to wake up and look at Facebook because it seemed every time we checked someone close to us or someone we knew had died.”
Barbara tells us, some of the churches in Detroit continued to hold services, after the recommendation not to gather in large numbers. The members met to seek comfort in the face of the pandemic. Barbara believes that was crucial for most of the people she knows who were infected and died.
How could one couple know so many people who have passed from COVID-19? They are an extensive close-knit family, descendants of Tom and Etta Rhoades, born slaves. Tom and Etta’s dreams were to keep their descendants together spiritually, in harmony, and in brotherly love. They have honored their ancestors by gathering each year, for 46 years, for a three-day family reunion. Friday is meet and greet (you would need it with over 200 attending). Saturday is picnic time, complete with a softball game between the North and the South. Sunday, everyone goes to a local church, followed by a family dinner. With all those family members together, not an argument or fight ever. Until 2020, when the pandemic hit the family, and they canceled the family reunion.
Barbara shares with us information on a few of those they have lost. “My aunt, Mary Rhoades, died on April 22, 2020, she was 97 years old. She was in good health, and we were praying she made it to 100.” Several of her siblings had achieved that milestone, and she was reasonably healthy for 97 years of age so that expectation was a real one. “Aunt Mary became infected in early April; two weeks later, she was gone. She went to the hospital in Philadelphia for minor surgery, and we believe she was infected there. What hurts the most is she died alone; no family or friends could visit her.”
“Jason Hargrove was a close friend of ours. He was the bus driver who went on Facebook Live to talk about a woman coughing on his bus without covering her mouth. Two weeks later, he was diagnosed with the coronavirus, and he died shortly thereafter. His death was not in vain as the Detroit Department of Transportation made many changes to enhance the safety of their drivers. Jason was a Deacon at my church.”
Barbara continues, “Another close friend of ours was Larry Griffin. He died on April 16. He sang in my husband’s band called “In Full Effect” when they were performing in Detroit. He continued to sing in a new band called “Serieux,” who performed mostly in Detroit but also in Las Vegas. He had a beautiful voice and some great dance moves. He was so healthy until he caught the virus, and, in weeks, he was gone.”
“It spread so much faster in the churches. Many Pastors we knew caught the virus and were gone. They were older and many had health issues, when the virus attacked them they could not fight it off. These 4 Pastors were all a part of the Church of God In Christ (COGIC). Many had large congregations and were still holding services after the call for social distancing. These great men are a true loss for the COGIC community.”
“On April 23, we lost a very dear friend of mine, Lynn Raimey. I called her my sister as her father was the Pastor of my church in Detroit. Her family took me in and treated me like family when I first moved to Detroit and didn’t know anyone. She had many health issues, so when she was infected by the virus, it killed her very quickly.”
“Although we have lost many family, friends, and associates, we know God is good, and he continues to show us favor even through the midst of this storm. Even though we know of many deaths, we also know of many survivors and to that we are grateful. These people are given a second chance so their test can become their testimony. I know of an entire household, The Washington family of Detroit, who are survivors. Pastor Jamonty, his wife Tamela and their daughter Ariel Washington all recovered and are doing well.”
Barb specifically finds strength in the Beatitudes; “Jesus said in Matthew 5:4, Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted. It is during these tough times of losing loveda ones that I can refer to scripture to give me the comfort I and my family needs. The question is have you ever suffered? Please know that we all have. But I have come to know through leaning on God and his word, he meets me at my very point of need. As believers, the Bible speaks about plagues and famine and death, and its teachings prepare us for what life has to offer. Oftentimes we don’t understand the current situations, but when we look back, we realize this had to happen.”
As of May 5, 2020, there have been over 72,000 deaths in the United States, and over 257,000 deaths Worldwide. It is critical to find strength either within or in a higher power, focus on the positive, and stay connected.
It is GRAM’s honor to recognize this incredible family.
Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.
Family & Friends Lost to Covid-19 (35 as of 5/5/20)
Mary R. – PA
Jason H. – MI
Rachelle Lynn R. – MI
Rev. O’Neil S. – MI
Gerald H. – MI
Curtis H. – MI
Larry G. – MI
Rosalind C. – MI
Rev. Gerald G. – VA
Skylar H. – MI
Rev. David F. – MI
Laneeka B. – MI
Ejuan W. – MI
Darnielita B. – MI
Bishop Phillip B. – MI
Bishop Robert S. – MI
Bishop Robert H. – MI
Tatia W. – MI
Rev. Lonie J. – MI
Carrie W. – MI
Helena J. – VA
James J. – VA
Robert J. – VA
Annette W. – NY
Helen L. – MD
Walter H. – DC
Carol T. – DE
Benjamin T. – DC
William B. – KY
Daniel R. – TX
Karen S. – NC
Denise B. – NC
Doris M. – OH
Trina D. – MI
Earl T. – VA
Nathaniel S. – MI
Lonnie L. – MI
Nathaniel S. Sr. – MI
Nathaniel S. Jr. – MI
Angel R. – IL
Americans for Safe Access + Covid
Americans for Safe Access (ASA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit with the mission of ensuring safe and legal access to cannabis for therapeutic use and research. The organization began in 2002 and has been helping educate people, change laws, and get more research out there about the therapeutic benefits of medical cannabis. “We also care about safety, and we want to make sure patients are using cannabis safely and legally throughout the United States,” explains Debbie Churgai, Interim Director for ASA.
GRAM sat down with Churgai to discuss how they are handling COVID-19 for patients throughout the U.S. She tells us, “When it first started, patients were really concerned about there being a lack of access to their medicine. So, one of the first things we did was host a stakeholders call. We contacted a bunch of people: patients, industry professionals, medical professionals, legal professionals, and within two hours, 15-20 people were on the phone strategizing. From that phone call, we then created a letter that we sent to Governors, medical cannabis commissions, and health departments urging them to keep medical cannabis businesses as essential, not just the dispensary but also cultivation and manufacturers so that there was no stop in production or supply chain.”
“It also meant, we needed to make sure patients were receiving safe products, that employees were also being kept safe. Then we started thinking about delivery for states that did not have that yet, and the states that did not yet offer telehealth – we wanted to encourage the changing of regulations at least temporarily to help accommodate the patients. As well as things like tax relief and adding additional caregivers, it wasn’t just about keeping businesses open, it was about making sure that patients were being protected and that products and employees were safe.”
In Colorado, we have seen dispensaries adapt to this crisis by adding hand sanitizer at checkout counters, wearing gloves and masks and only allowing one person in the purchasing area at a time. 33 states now have some sort of medical cannabis program.
According to news around the U.S., cannabis is now considered essential. But it wasn’t that way at first. According to Churgai, “Some states seemed to hold back on making any temporary changes in regulations. Within two weeks though, all the other states began implementing the suggestions we recommended.”
We needed to make sure patients were receiving safe products, that employees were also being kept safe.
“California has reached out more than any other state, I believe that is due to the fact that every single county there is different, from its tax structure to its implementation of the laws. Massachusetts was high with the questions as well because of them deciding to close down their recreational dispensaries for adult use. Now there is an influx of new patients. Now there are new concerns.”
Each state has a different set of rules and regulations surrounding their medical cannabis programs. “We wanted businesses to all have the same information so we offered a live training on health and safety during COVID-19, that can now be purchased as part of our Patient Focused Certification.1 In the training we provide information such as how to properly put on and take off gloves, how to properly touch things, how to properly sanitize surfaces, and more to make sure that businesses are being as safe as possible during this time.”
“When we realized that we helped assist in making these services essential, we wanted to learn how they actually worked for patients throughout the U.S. We wanted to understand, what do they still need during this time? Are their needs being met as patients? Would they like to see services like telehealth and delivery continue after COVID-19? We realize that we really need to streamline our advocacy efforts at this time, and we felt the survey would be a great way to learn what we can do for patients out there,” Churgai explains.
Help ASA discover what patients need around the United States.
Take the survey here: https://www.safeaccessnow.org/covid-19_survey
COVID-19 Patient Experience Survey asks questions like:
• How do you obtain cannabis?
• Do you feel you are at risk for covid and why?
• Rate your state’s response to the covid crisis.
• How should your state be assisting you more?
Patients are at greater risk for a variety of reasons so ASA is working to ensure that the needs of patients are taken into account. So, in addition to creating this survey, Americans for Safe Access has also created a page on their website dedicated to resources for patients seeking information surrounding COVID-19.2
Churgai says, “Cannabis is real medicine. I have been in this industry for so long, and I am a realist, and I know things will not change overnight. But I do feel the pandemic has highlighted the need for this medicine to be seen as real medicine. At ASA, patients are our priority, we are unbiased, we are not paid to play, and patients will always be our top priority.” You can learn all about Americans for Safe Access by visiting their website: https://www.safeaccessnow.org/
Trends in Endocrinology + Metabolism
The quest for a healthy
Endo-Cannabinoid System (ECS)
Emphasis on immunoregulation
The ECS is a disperse system, extending throughout the body; it is in constant interplay with all other organ systems promoting homeostasis in almost every aspect. Despite that, the ECS is still neglected and not included in the curricula of medical schools. For this reason a few introductory notes are in order (Battista et al, 2012). The ECS is the regulator of cognition, mood, nociception, energy metabolism, oxidation, inflammatory processes and a disease modifier as well (Tantimonaco et al, 2014).
The ECS consists of receptors, ligands to these receptors and enzymes that synthesize and degrade these ligands. The number of known endocannabinoid receptors is still growing to more that 55; the two most outstanding receptors are CB1R, mainly distributed throughout the nervous system and responsible for the psychoactivity of cannabis, and CB2R, mainly distributed on immune cells, even those “disguised” as specialized cells within other organs. Other receptors include TRPVx, GPR55, PPaRs etc; all these receptors form dimers between them as well as heterodimers with other types of receptors, like opioid, dopamine, serotonin, adenosine, catecholamine receptors and many others, thereby promoting a universal regulatory interplay throughout the body. The ligands to these receptors are the endocannabinoids (ECs): lipids of the eicosanoid family, derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA); the latter abounds in cell membranes; five of these are well characterized to date, but two are well studied: Anandamide (AEA) and 2-Arachidonoyl-Glycerole (2AG). ECs in the nervous system act in negative feedback loops, more or less like neurotransmitters, but, unlike them, they are synthesized and degraded on demand, and not stored in micro-vesicles. Several formerly unrelated morbid conditions are now recognized as ECS deficiencies, including, among many, migraine, autism, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, etc (Russo, 2016).
The endocannabinoid system is involved in immunoregulation through the CB2 receptor and through receptor independent biochemical pathways. The mechanisms of immunoregulation by ECs include modulation of immune response in different cell types, effect on cytokine network and induction of immunoapoptosis; in brief, ECs down-regulate the innate and adaptive immune response in most, but not all, instances. Manipulation of endocannabinoids in vivo may constitute a novel treatment modality against inflammatory disorders.
It is obvious that the health of the ECS is of great importance in many ways, including the facing of a viral infection like COVID-19. A healthy ECS depends on many factors, most importantly from proper nutrition (McPartland et al, 2014).
Dietary ω3 fatty acids seem to act as homeostatic regulators of the ECS, acting in opposite directions if consumed by obese or non-obese individuals. Little change in EC levels are seen in individuals with normal weight, not fed a high ω6 diet.
Dietary ω6 fatty acids are also essential, but should be in a balance to ω3s; suggested balance is ω3:ω6=1:1 to 1:3 for proper ECS signaling and prevention of peroxidation in general. Arachidonic acid is an essential component of the ω6 fatty acids.
Probiotics and prebiotics play a significant part in ECS health, but, for a bizarre reason, they are generally not mentioned: They up-regulate CB2Rs residing on immune cells of the gut; they also modulate CB1Rs, depending on conditions, for instance, they down-regulate CB1Rs in obese individuals and help them gain less or no fat.
Some flavonoids, like kaempferol, genistein, epigallocatechine gallate, and curcumin enhance the ECS; same happens with some anthocyanidins, like cyanidin and delphinidin, although with a different mechanism.
Phthalates, pesticides, additives to pesticides like piperonyl butoxide act as ECS disruptors, meaning that consuming organic food may be a sound protective measure, along with intake of detoxifiers, in case of health problems consistent with ECS deficiency not otherwise explained.
Chronic stress impairs the ECS by decreasing levels of AEA and 2AG, and possibly through changes in CB1R expression too. Stress management may reverse the effects of chronic stress on ECS signaling. Anecdotal reports and common experience suggest that techniques such as meditation, yoga, deep breathing exercises and practicing of sex as well, exhibit mild cannabimimetic effects, thereby balancing the system.
Exercise is also an ECS regulator: Long-term exercise leads to sustained elevations of ECs, and predictable CB1R down-regulation.
Chronic alcohol consumption and binge drinking likely desensitize or down-regulate CB1R and impair EC signaling. Alcohol is not compatible with a healthy ECS.
Nicotine is an ECS deregulator: It induces EC production in some areas of the brain, while decreasing them in others. It should be avoided too.
Caffeine, acutely administered, potentiates CB1R-mediated effects through antagonizing adenosine at the A1 receptor (AA1R). At the undisturbed state, AA1Rs tonically inhibit CB1R activity; Caffeine antagonism on AA1Rs sets CB1Rs free of inhibition, thereby enhancing ECS function, for example by letting 2AG activate CB1Rs. During chronic administration of caffeine, the effects are blurred by individual differences in adaptation. In general, CB1Rs are down-regulated.
Chocolate: Cocoa contains sm-all amounts of at least three N-acyl-ethanolamines with cannabimimetic activity, expressed either directly by activating cannabinoid receptors, or indirectly, by increasing AEA levels (di Tomaso et al, 1996).
Battista et al, 2012: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303140/
Tantimonacco et al, 2014: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24526057/
(Russo, 2016): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28861491/
(McPartland et al, 2014): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951193/
(di Tomaso et al, 1996): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8751435/
Shareable Science Beyond the Blog: Antibodies – June 5 update
Shareable Science Beyond the Blog: Herd Immunity – June 1 update
Shareable Science Beyond the Blog: Misinformation – May 29 update
Shareable Science Beyond the Blog: COVID-19 Outcomes – May 27 update
Shareable Science Beyond the Blog: Treatment and Vaccine – May 20 update
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