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Plant Medicine

Herbal Medicine + Parkinson’s Disease

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This issue of GRAM discusses the ways cannabis can help with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its symptoms. There are also a number of other alternative treatments that can be used, oftentimes in conjunction with anti-PD medication. Plants and treatments that are neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant have all had positive effects on the symptoms and pathogenesis of PD either in animal studies or through historical use that has not been clinically studied. Continue reading to discover various plant medicines that have been used to improve the quality of life for PD patients and even fight the progression of the disease.

Herbal medicine (HM) has been used to treat PD and its symptoms in China and other Asian countries. The key ingredients in herbal medicine combinations can include up to 52 to different herbs with 59 different combinations.1,2 A study published in 2018, listed the top 11 herbs found in traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat PD: danshen root, debark peony root, gambir plant nod, rehmannia root, desertliving cistanche, fleeceflower root, sichuan lovage rhizome, Asiatic cornelian cherry fruit, Chinese angelica, grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, and milkvetch root.1 Many studies have highlighted the various ways that HMs are combined and used in Asian countries. The way these ingredients are combined and the levels of combination are probably based on individual treatment plans, and it is likely that one specific combination of herbs is not going to work for every patient. Our bodies react differently to herbs and the way they interact with each other. 

A study published in 2012 identified the wide range of variation in the preparation of HMs; it also identified that when used with conventional drug therapy such as levodopa, led to decreased symptoms and adverse events and a reduction in the dosage of anti-PD drugs.2 This study did point out that in order to get a better understanding of HM’s effect on PD, there needs to be standardization of ingredients and further studies over a longer period of time to study any adverse effects.2

One such standardization of Chinese HM is a combination of 8 herbs referred to as Optimized Yinxieling Formula (OYF). It has been used to treat psoriasis because of its anti-inflammatory properties. These same properties were found to be neuroprotective and prevent neuroinflammation in mice.3 In fact, they stopped the activation of the immune cells in the brain that cause cell death in dopamine nerve cells.

Another Asian tradition that has been used to treat PD is Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medicine practice. Ancient Ayurvedic texts appear to refer to body tremors or “kampavata.” Plant medicines used in Ayurveda to treat PD include Ashwaganda and Mucuna Pruriens (MP).4 In fact, a recent study showed that powdered seeds of MP delivers a naturally occurring form of the anti-PD drug levodopa and provides the same efficacy as synthetic levodopa with fewer adverse effects.5

Oxidative stress has been found to contribute to the loss of dopamine-producing cells in a specific part of the brain called the substantia nigra.6,7 Specifically, ginkgo biloba has been studied in animals to treat PD symptoms and was found to have neuroprotective effects, prevent oxidative stress, and reduce the toxicity of the anti-PD drug, levodopa.8

It is important to note that antioxidants such as ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, creatine, CoQ10, and others have not been found to be extremely effective in treating PD in humans. The reason for this might be that the oxidative stress has already caused the deterioration and/or death of the dopamine-producing nerve cells by the time PD is diagnosed.6 This does not discount the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants for potentially preventing PD in the first place. 

Due to the worsening effects of PD on patients, the quality of life usually declines as the disease worsens. Using plant medicines; focusing on an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant diet; and cannabis use, in conjunction with modern anti-PD drugs could improve the quality of life and delay the death of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Ensure you are discussing any alternative treatments with your physician.


REFERENCES:

1. Chan, C.S., et al. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 10:349. 2018. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00349

2. Kim, T.H., et al. PLoS One, 7(5): e35695. 2012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035695 

3. Wei, R.R., et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018. doi: 10.1155/2018/6142065

4. Gourie-Devi, M. et al. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 84(8): 491-491. 1991.

5. Cilia, R. et al. Neurology, 89(5). 2017. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004175

6. Amro, M.S., et al. La Clinica Terapeutica, 169(1). 2018. doi: 10.7417/T.2018.2050.

7. Filograna, R. et al. Current Neuropharmacology, 14(3). 2016. doi: 10.2174/1570159X13666151030102718

8. Tanaka, K. et al. Current Neuropharmacology, 11(4). 2013. doi: 10.2174/1570159X11311040006

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Plant Medicine

Powerful Plants for MS

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Cannabis is a powerful plant medicine that has been shown to help MS patients, but it’s not the only tool in the toolbox. There are several plants shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects, which can be beneficial to help reduce symptoms like fatigue, muscle pain and stiffness, spasms, improve sleep quality, and improve depression. Obtaining phytonutrients from plants can help improve the quality of life for those living with MS. Most strategies for the treatment of MS focus on reducing inflammation within the central nervous system. 

Many plants offer benefits without the side effects associated with synthetic treatment options and can effectively help patients. Ginkgo is among the oldest living tree species in the world and has been found to reduce fatigue in some MS patients.1 Vitamin D has sufficient evidence to support its use with patients living with MS.2 Vitamin D is a nutrient found in some foods, it helps nerves to transmit messages between the brain and the entire body.3 Another powerful plant is green tea. Green tea polyphenols are antioxidants and contain both anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects.4 Saffron has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in MS patients and has pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.5 

Many patients living with MS develop depression. Studies have shown herbal remedies, such as saffron, have positive effects on relieving depressive symptoms and may be an alternative to synthetic antidepressants.6 Another plant medicine is psilocybin, which a growing number of cities in the U.S. are decriminalizing, and it’s being studied at John’s Hopkins. In January, a UK pharmaceutical company announced it received a U.S. patent for a “preparation of psilocybin” in the treatment of depression.7

Another plant medicine shown to improve the quality of life in MS patients is evening primrose oil. The oil contains the fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and has been shown to improve cognitive function, vitally and overall life satisfaction. MS patients who have used evening primrose oil have shown improved quality of life and reduced fatigue, although it did not prevent the progression of the disease. One study indicated that MS patients may find relief from fatigue and positively improve their quality of life with ginseng as well.8

Utilizing plant medicines may provide less undesirable side effects and produce more therapeutic benefits to patients with MS. Many patients are finding relief when they reduce processed foods and incorporate more plant-based foods which offer anti-inflammatory benefits, like fruits and vegetables. The potential benefits of natural antioxidants found in food,  on neurodegenerative diseases, and the roles they perform have been evaluated and may be effective at reducing oxidative stress in individuals.9 Many individuals experience symptoms that may be treated and prevented by utilizing plant medicines and plant foods to obtain these nutrients. With most strategies of treatment focusing on reducing inflammation, plants may provide relief without the list of negative side effects from synthetic medication. 


REFERENCES:

1. Johnson, S.K., Et al. Explore (NY). 2006 Jan;2(1):19-24.
2. Evans E. Et al. JAMA Neurology. 2018 Aug 1;75(8):1013-1021. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.0611.
3. “Vitamin D.” https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-Consumer/
4. Yang, F. Et al. The Journal of Nutrition. 1998 Dec;128(12):2334-40.
5. Alavi, M.S., Et al. Drug Research. 2019 Jun;69(6):323-329. doi: 10.1055/a-0790-8200.
6. Dai, L. Et al. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.  2020 Jan 7. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001118.
7. Majdinasab N., Et al. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018 Jun 12;14:1505-1512. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S149403
8. Etemadifar M., Et al. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2013 Jul;123(7):480-6. doi: 10.3109/00207454.2013.764499.
9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914905

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Plant Medicine

Powerful Plants for Pain

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Plant medicines continue their progressive path as a potential solution to the opioid epidemic and providing relief to people across the world. The psychedelic renaissance continues with the FDA granting a Breakthrough Therapy designation to a program to study psilocybin. The Usona Institute is a non-profit, medical research organization looking beyond the traditional treatments for depression. Their goal is to enable and support research with the FDA by registering psilocybin as an approved medicine which would have the ability to treat over 300 million people affected by depression worldwide.1 More states are pushing for decriminalization for plant medicines, and some are pushing for statewide initiatives later this year. 

Curcumin has been studied widely for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiandrogenic effects.

In addition to psychedelic plants providing relief for depression and inflammation, other plants, such as turmeric, have powerful properties to reduce inflammation and provide other benefits. Turmeric is a plant related to ginger that is grown throughout India, other parts of Asia, and Central America. It has been used in one of the world’s oldest medical systems, Ayurvedic medicine, for thousands of years and is described as a powerful pain reliever. Ayurvedic medicine applies a natural and holistic approach to physical and mental health and remains one of India’s traditional health care systems.2 Turmeric contains curcuminoids, which studies have found may reduce the number of heart attacks, bypass patients have after surgery, control knee pain from osteoarthritis as well or better than ibuprofen, and reduce the skin irritation that often occurs after radiation treatments for breast cancer patients.3

“Curcumin has been studied widely for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiandrogenic effects. Curcumin has shown considerable anticancer effects against several different types of cancer, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and head and neck cancer.”4 It is believed to produce its anticancer activity throughout several mechanisms within the body. More studies need to be conducted to evaluate methods of delivery for optimal pain reduction. However, a study found curcumin to be effective and safe in alleviating symptoms in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis.5

Similar to tumeric, ginger is another plant that has been found to provide powerful pain relief. A study looked at applying topical ginger treatments. It concluded, “Ginger has the potential to relieve symptoms, improve the overall health, and increase independence of people with chronic osteoarthritis.”6

There are so many natural plant medicines available we can use without a prescription and side effects. Another study looked at using aromatherapy. It found that the inhalation of essential oils, such as damask rose and lavender, reduced the severity of pain and anxiety after a c-section.7 There are almost 400,000 plant species around the world that humans have coexisted with; the possibilities of their potential are abundant to help provide natural healing options for our world, and these are just a few that help with pain. 


REFERENCES

1. https://usonaclinicaltrials.org/
2. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/ayurveda/introduction.htm#hed1
3. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric/ataglance.htm
4. https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/5/1033/htm
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31239749
6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230973/
7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31730539

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Education & Research

Plant Medicine

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In Grass Roots America Magazine, we discuss plant medicines and the science surrounding their uses, along with stories about the people’s lives they affect. Our previous issue featured interviews with U.S. Army Veteran, Matt Kahl, and Dr. Sue Sisley. Matt shared about his positive experience with ayahuasca, and how it helped with his PTSD. Dr. Sisley, the world’s leading researcher on cannabis and PTSD in veterans, also discussed how she’s heard reports of veterans feeling better and more joyful after going on their own journey with things like psilocybin, ayahuasca, and/or ibogaine. In addition to our interviews, the GRAM team attended the 2019 Cannabis Science Conference West in Portland, OR, where Olivia Newton John explained how cannabis helped her get off morphine and how ayahuasca allowed her to quit taking antidepressants.

In addition to these powerful testimonials, psychedelic legal reform is continuing to progress around the country. In 2019, Denver became the first major city to decriminalize psilocybin possession and personal use for those ages 21 and above. A month later, Oakland became the second major city to decriminalize psilocybin, as well as other psychedelics that come from plants and fungi, including ayahuasca, ibogaine, and peyote. Supporters share how they found the plants helpful for overcoming trauma, depression, addiction, and anxiety. This psychedelic movement is advancing quickly with Portland, Dallas, Chicago, and Berkeley proposing to decriminalize some sort of psychedelic plants. 

It’s a priority to share these new discoveries.

Even scientific research in the United States is beginning to rapidly expand as people become more interested in the possibility of psychedelic therapies becoming a natural option for medical treatment. In the fall of 2019, a group of private donors gave $17 million dollars to start a Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research at Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Johns Hopkins is deeply committed to exploring innovative treatments for our patients,” says Paul B Rothman, Dean of the Medical Faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Our scientists have shown that psychedelics have real potential as medicine, and this new center will help us explore that potential.” 

Inspired by our interviews, the progression of decriminalizing natural plant medicines like cannabis, psilocybin, and ayahuasca throughout the U.S., and the advances of plant medicine research, we feel it’s a priority to share these new discoveries. This is why we’re beginning this plant medicine column, which will be featured every month, leading up to an entire issue focused on all plant medicines, later this year. Plant medicine topics we will cover will include things like cannabis and psychedelics, but also how different plant foods work as a medicine, the health benefits of things like essential oils, and more. If it’s a natural medicine that comes from plants, we’ll cover it here, because we are dedicated to delivering Great Research About Medicine, one GRAM at a time, with informative material empowering you to take control of your health and well-being.

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