No one knew that the tragic event that took place on May 25, 2020 would lead to a worldwide civil rights movement. Police brutality has sadly gone on in this country for centuries, specifically to minorities and people of color, and the death of George Floyd was the last straw for everyone. People were tired of being in their homes due to the coronavirus and then the news shifted and played a video over and over again showing a man, begging for his life. This was not the first time we have seen such a video in the United States, but finally, people are taking a stand.
In Colorado, the death of George Floyd led to a protest with thousands of people, shouting “no justice, no peace, no justice, no peace!” These protests lasted for weeks after his passing. Hundreds continued to gather every single day in honor of all the recent black lives that passed. Tributes were made, art was created, tears were shed daily on the Capitol steps. Parts of the Capitol, Civic Center Park (in front of the Capitol,) as well as many other nearby places in Denver were damaged with graffiti and various forms of vandalism, including many broken windows and trash can fires. It was very clear that the people of Colorado were fed up. Over the next couple of weeks, every major city in the US and several places throughout the world followed suit and peacefully protested systemic racism.
But what did these protests do? In Colorado, the legislators saw what was happening to their cities and knew that the time for a change in policy was now. Representative Leslie Herod is responsible for District 8: Denver, Colorado. Her constituents were gathering daily on the Capitol steps, and they were joined by people from neighboring cities and states. They made their point very clear—something needed to be done to enhance the integrity of the police force.
In Colorado, the legislators saw what was happening to their cities and knew that the time for a change in policy was now.
With the assistance of fellow Prime Sponsors, Representative Herod sat down and got to work on the piece of legislation that would become “SB 217, Enhance Law Enforcement Integrity.” Representative Herod tells us, “I am the vice chair of the judiciary committee, and I already worked a lot on policing and criminal justice issues and mass incarcerations. I was specifically looking at a bill to address the local cases we had here in Colorado with Elijah McLain and De’Von Bailey. I had a bill drafted but did not have support to get it introduced through the COVID season. So basically what we did was shelve it, but because of the cries of the protestors for justice and change, we were able to add a lot of really important components to the bill, introduce it, and then have it pass.”
While speaking with Representative Herod, I took note of how excited she sounded when talking about how many people reached out to their legislators. As someone who has spent time working towards advancing cannabis policy, I know how difficult it is to make a massive letter writing campaign be effective. I am proud of the people of Colorado for showing up in big numbers. Representative Herod explains, “The number of people who wrote, and called, and reached out to their legislators was something I had never seen before. The people who showed up to testify and even to protest outside, it was more than I had ever seen. It was definitely the reason I feel we were able to get this (SB217) passed with such bipartisan support. I do think that we may not have had that same type of support if we did not have so much support from the community.”
It is important to realize, “Protests do lead to policy change. It is the sustained process to make it work. What I will say is that I speak a lot with the families and victims here in Colorado, and they are frustrated that it took this before people would show up and support their kids that died. I had to feel ready and like we were in a good place for the introduction of this bill, the protests allowed me to push the bill the way it needed to be pushed. George Floyd was not the reason for this bill, however the protest helped immensely, but I have been ready because of the kids we have lost here in Colorado. They are not left out of this conversation,” says Representative Herod.
I think the most important thing anyone can realize right now is that “This is more than a moment, this is a movement.” Representative Herod speaks such powerful words. She leaves us with this advice, “If you are in elected office and/or if you are a person in a position of power, it is really incumbent upon you right now to begin to address systemic racism right now. If you don’t, people will show up and protest and demand change. As an elected official, I think it is important for people to really think about what is going on right now and think about ways to change.”
To everyone wanting to understand systemic racism and how to advance this movement as a whole, “Keep speaking out, keep showing up. Don’t try to give us your emotional weight; try and take some of it off of us. Don’t give us your race burdens, instead take action. Protest, write to your elected officials, don’t expect us to explain race to you, just be there to support us, even something simple as buying someone lunch and expecting nothing in return.”
Police reform is needed now more than ever and Colorado is on the cutting edge of what that policy should look like. It is this author’s hope that more states adopt legislation like SB217 and make it their own.
SB20-217 Enhance Law Enforcement Integrity
“Concerning measures to enhance law enforcement integrity, and,
in connection therewith, making an appropriation.”
No more choke holds – choke holds and carotid control holds are now banned. Officers can only use force if absolutely necessary and deadly force can’t be used against someone for a minor or nonviolent offense.
The need to intervene – Officers will be protected from retaliation if they intervene. An officer who fails to try to stop another from using excessive force could face a class 1 misdemeanor or greater charge.
Body cameras – By July 1, 2023 all officers in the state of Colorado, with the exception of some administrative positions, undercover officers, and correctional officers under view of other cameras will be required to wear body cameras. Police who purposely tamper with or turn off their camera, can now face criminal charges for doing so.
Police prosecutions – state Attorney general has the authority to prosecute persistently bad departments and officers.
Data tracking – Agencies who don’t provide the required data and information could put their funding in jeopardy. State data will include: their use of force resulting in serious injury or death as well as stops, unannounced entries and use of firearms and demographic information.
Protecting protestors – Shooting rubber bullets indiscriminately into a crowd as well as targeting rubber bullet shots at someone’s head, torso or back is prohibited. As is the use of pepper spray or tear gas, before announcing it will be sprayed to the crowd and allowing time for them to disperse from the area.
Bad cops – If an officer has been found guilty of a crime of inappropriate use of force, failure to intervene to stop excessive force, or found civilly liable for excessive force, or failure to intervene, will lose their Peace Officer Standards and Training board certification permanently.
Turmeric is a root vegetable commonly used as a spice in various Indian and other cultures’ dishes. Turmeric is in the zingiberaceae family, as is ginger. The turmeric plant is native to the southeastern region of Asia and commonly harvested in places like India, Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia, and Taiwan. It is responsible for curry’s signature orange color, and its vibrant pigment will give essentially any meal an orange hue.
Turmeric contains a substance called curcumin, and curcumin has been shown through research to offer anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic benefits. The scientific name for the turmeric plant is Curcuma Longa, and likely where the name curcumin comes from. When people are talking about the health benefits of turmeric, they are referencing curcumin so you may hear the two names used interchangeably. Curcumin is part of a group called curcuminoids, with curcumin being the most active and the most beneficial for health. Flavonoids are another substance found in various plants and give these plants their color. Curcumin is a flavonoid and is responsible for providing that bright orange color to turmeric. In addition to providing aesthetic value, flavonoids are also strong antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry published a study done by Sanjaya Singh and Bharat B. Aggarwal of the Cytokine Research Laboratory at the world-renowned cancer hospital, M.D. Anderson. The study found that curcumin suppressed NF-κB, a protein complex responsible for controlling inflammatory responses. In other words, turmeric shuts off the body’s inflammatory response. Anti-inflammatories can be beneficial for many different ailments, including chronic pain and digestive disorders. A lot of CBD companies even put curcumin in their products because of its benefits. It is believed to be a synergistic pair with complementary therapeutic properties. The thought is that the two plant medicines are powerful on their own; as a combination, they can deliver even more anti-inflammatory and medicinal benefits.
Many people simply add turmeric to their dishes as a way to easily incorporate it into their daily routine. It is pretty mild in flavor and can be added to many dishes without changing the overall taste too drastically. Some say that turmeric isn’t strong enough on its own to receive the anti-inflammatory properties that curcumin provides, and therefore recommend a curcumin supplement. Research varies on that, so in the end it is just up to personal preference and your doctor’s approval. Curcumin supplements come most available in capsules. Pregnant women can safely use turmeric as an addition to their food, but should avoid taking high-dosage supplements. Those who are interested in supplementing with curcumin products should talk with their doctor first.
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center did another study in 2007 exploring curcumin for cancer treatment. The study found that curcumin inhibits ovarian cancer growth and angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels). It does this by targeting and manipulating the NF-κB pathway, the same protein complex responsible for controlling inflammatory response. According to a report published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, “The nuclear factor NF-κB pathway has long been considered a prototypical proinflammatory signaling pathway, largely based on the role of NF-κB in the expression of proinflammatory genes including cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules.”
The trend with curcumin seems to be it’s ability to control inflammatory responses in the body. It does this by multiple pathways, but a commonly researched one is the NF-κB protein complex. Because this pathway is able to be manipulated by curcumin to encourage anti-inflammatory expressions, its potential for successfully treating various ailments is there.
Psilocybin + Magic Mushrooms
When many think of plant medicine, specifically those plants with psychoactive effects, they think of “magic mushrooms,” or fungi containing psilocybin and psilocin that can cause hallucinations depending on the dosage consumed. In many states, there are active efforts to decriminalize these otherwise scheduled substances, lowering penalties for their use and possession. But what value do psilocybin-containing mushrooms offer? New research suggests a range of therapeutic and psychological value ranging from the treatment of substance abuse to anxiety and depression management.
What are Magic Mushrooms?
Magic Mushroom use dates back to 10,000 BCE and references continue throughout the era. Their modern popularity began when the term “magic mushroom” was coined by two etnomycologists who learned of a Harvard study on local doctors in Mexico using these substances, noting the substance’s ability to affect the nervous system. These findings were eventually published in Life magazine in 1957, and the term became the universal reference for psychoactive fungi and truffles, specifically those containing high concentrations of psilocybin and psilocin.
Psilocybin & Psilocin: The “Magic” in Magic Mushrooms
Psilocybin and psilocin are part of a family of psychedelic compounds found in magic mushrooms. Psilocin is pharmacologically active, and psilocybin is converted into psilocin when consumed or activated. Similar in structure to serotonin, there are more than 50 species of mushrooms and a variety of truffles that produce both the precursor, psilocybin, and the psychoactive compound, psilocin. Unlike LSD, magic mushrooms do not affect dopamine receptors, solely targeting serotonin sites.
How are Magic Mushrooms used?
Magic mushrooms are often used for recreational, therapeutic and medicinal reasons. “Effects range from mild feelings of relaxation, giddiness, euphoria, visual enhancement (seeing colors brighter), visual disturbances (moving surfaces, waves), to delusions, altered perception of real events, images and faces, or real hallucinations.” Recreationally, this is often known as “tripping.” As an alternative health option, these fungi are being used for anxiety, depression, PTSD, and trauma, as well as psychological disorders such as substance abuse disorders, and science is beginning to back the potential for these applications.
Research on Mushrooms
Evaluations of currently available scientific studies suggest a growing number of therapeutic benefits and treatment options. “In the past few years, a growing number of studies using human volunteers have begun to explore the possible therapeutic benefits of drugs such as psilocybin…looking at psilocybin and other hallucinogens to treat a number of otherwise intractable psychiatric disorders, including chronic depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and drug or alcohol dependency.”
Magic mushrooms have been respected as a “safe & natural healing sacrament for millennia throughout Mexico, Central America and the world,” and are known to be beneficial for depression, recidivism (the tendency to repeat past transgressions), and encourages openness, creativity, as well as personal and spiritual growth. UCLA and NYC have done studies on the applications of magic mushrooms in the treatment of end-of-life anxiety and other studies have backed up the use of psilocybin and psilocin in the treatment of substance use disorders, depression (especially in cases of terminal conditions like cancer as well as treatment-resistant depression), and reducing depression and anxiety overall.
Best way for people to consume?
When it comes to the consumption of mushrooms, advice on dosage is about as specific as it was with cannabis under prohibition. Consumers must purchase on the black market and are subject to whatever may be available.
“Recreational doses range from 1–5 grams of dry mushrooms depending on the species and individual strength of the specimens… After ingestion, the psilocybin is enzymatically converted to psilocin. Absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, hallucinogenic effects usually occur within 30 minutes of ingestion with a duration of effect of 4–6 hours.”
My recommendation as someone who has used magic mushrooms both for recreational and therapeutic purposes, is to grind the mushrooms into a fine powder and either encapsulate them in small increments and/or combine with lemon juice. Capsules will allow you to titrate your dosage as needed with a recognizable increment, while lemon juice will expedite onset time.
The Legality of Magic Mushrooms
In the United States, psilocybin is a Schedule I controlled substance, with no accepted medicinal value and a high potential for abuse. In contrast, the Drug Policy Alliance states that “Physically, psilocybin mushrooms are considered to be one of the least toxic drugs known.” With that being said, local efforts such as Decriminalize Nature – Oakland and Decriminalize Denver have pushed for and successfully passed initiatives and legislation to reduce penalties and make enforcement a low priority, as was done in the early days of cannabis activism. This has spurred multiple local and international efforts to “Decriminalize Nature,” efforts that we learn more about in this month’s feature.
Ginkgo biloba is an ancient tree; its roots originate in China. The ginkgo biloba tree is also sometimes known as the maidenhair tree or the Japanese silver apricot, and it produces a foul-smelling fruit commonly harvested for its seeds known as “ginkgo nuts”. Ginkgo nuts are popularly used in Asian cuisine.
The ginkgo biloba tree’s fan-shaped leaves are used to make ginkgo biloba extract, a supplement traditionally used in Chinese medicine, but has since garnered the attention of cultures worldwide. The supplement comes in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets. The leaves can also be dried to make tea. The type of ginkgo biloba extract supplement someone takes is all a matter of personal preference, and depends on the user’s already existing regimen. If you do not already drink tea, a ginkgo biloba tea may not implement easily into your lifestyle, thus a greater chance for inconsistency or erratic results. But if you take vitamins or other supplements regularly, after a doctor’s approval you can easily incorporate an additional capsule or tablet into your daily routine.
The 16th-century Compendium of Materia Medica or Ben Cao Gang Mu is revered as the most comprehensive text ever written in the history of traditional Chinese medicine. This text reveals that ginkgo biloba seeds were used as a topical extract for antimicrobial purposes on the skin. Traditional Chinese Medicine also uses the leaves for tea and attributes it to soothing coughs and activating blood circulation, as well as other benefits like respiratory and digestive ailments.
A common use for ginkgo biloba is to preserve memory and prevent cognitive decline. Dr. Hiroko Dodge of Oregon State University at Corvallis and his research team followed 118 people for three years aged 85 years and older, in good health, and showing no signs of dementia or memory loss at the beginning of the study. Half took ginkgo biloba and half took a placebo over three years. The patients taking it regularly had a 70% lower risk of developing dementia. According to the study, the other variables included considered “basic demographic variables including age, sex, years of education, and living arrangement (living alone vs living with someone).”
The National Center for Biotechnology and Information published a study exploring ginkgo as a potential remedy for anxiety and, “The authors reported a significant improvement in psychopathological symptoms. Response rates were 44% in the high-dose group, 31% in the low-dose group, and 22% with placebo. Additionally, the percentages of clinically significant responses were 81%, 67%, and 38% for the high-dose, the low-dose, and the placebo groups, respectively.”2
A 2008 study reinforced the idea behind Traditional Chinese Medicine that ginkgo biloba improves blood circulation. The study shows ginkgo biloba extract to improve coronary artery circulation in patients with coronary artery disease. The study notes, “GBE (ginkgo biloba extract) treatment demonstrated a significant improvement in maximal diastolic peak velocity (MDPV), maximal systolic peak velocity (MSPV) and diastolic time velocity integral (DTVI) compared with controls.”3 In other words, ginkgo biloba extract is a great contender as a treatment to improve blood flow.
Like cannabis and other medicinal plants, ginkgo has terpenes and flavonoids. Both of these compounds have therapeutic properties, and can provide anti-inflammatory benefits as well as being packed with antioxidants. Anti-inflammatory effects can serve many different ailments, especially relieving pain of various kinds. Antioxidants are thought to protect our bodies from free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause harm to the body. Terpenes are also responsible for giving plants their unique and flavorful smell. Flavonoids are the compounds that give plants their vibrant and diverse colors, and are the largest group of phytonutrients. There are approximately 6,00 different types of flavonoids.
A few years back, the National Toxicology Program released a detailed report on ginkgo biloba extract. It dissects the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of ginkgo biloba using rodent test subjects. The report made its rounds as proof that ginkgo biloba causes cancer, because the rodents developed cancer at high-rates over two year periods. Per the American Botanical Council, “Adjusted for bodyweight, dosage levels given to the animals were up to 55 to 108 times higher than levels of ginkgo normally ingested by human beings taking ginkgo supplements.” Many people have been using this report to warn against the supplement, but Bill J. Gurley, Ph.D., a professor of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Arkansas School for Medical Sciences, Little Rock said, “Almost anything will create cancer in rats and mice when it’s fed to them at high doses for two years.” The American Botanical Council also claims the ginkgo biloba extract used in the rodent experiment was of lesser quality, and not meeting European standards.
Though this seemingly negative research on ginkgo can be explained, it is still important to discuss any kind of supplement addition with your doctor, especially if you are on other supplements or pharmaceutical prescriptions.